The Kleiman v. Wright case continues this week and a slew of new evidence has been submitted to the Southern District of Florida courthouse. A supplemental affidavit stemming from the Kleiman estate’s expert witness, Dr. Matthew Edman, indicates that documents submitted to the court as evidence were “modified” and “backdated.”
Plaintiff’s Analysis of Documents Shows David Kleiman’s PGP Signature Was Created Almost a Year After He Died
A transcript of an affidavit was recently submitted to the Kleiman v. Wright (9:18-cv-80176) court case, which shows that an expert witness found many flaws within certain documents filed in the case. The billion-dollar bitcoin lawsuit is one of the most high profile court cases in the U.S. because it involves 1 million BTC and self-proclaimed ‘Bitcoin inventor’ Craig Wright. Since December 2015, the crypto community has endured Wright’s repeated claims to be Satoshi Nakamoto. However, nearly every claim and every so-called proof Wright has provided has been debunked by researchers, cryptographers, and the greater crypto community. Many of the refutations against Wright’s story accuse him of providing backdated documents and proofs that have been modified at a later date. From the very beginning of Wright’s entrance into the community, his story has been suspected of being a falsified tale or hoax. On December 9, 2015, Vice reporter Sarah Jeong detailed that the “PGP keys referenced in stories naming Craig Wright as the creator of Bitcoin were probably falsely backdated.”
Fast forward to today and Craig Wright is being sued by Ira Kleiman, the brother of the now deceased David Kleiman, for allegedly interfering with David’s bitcoin assets and intellectual property after he died. The first filing shows the value of the assets the Kleiman family thinks David was screwed out of is around $5.1 billion before punitive or treble damages. This week, an affidavit was submitted to the court that shows the testimony of the Kleiman estate’s witness, Dr. Matthew Edman, a cryptography expert.
As other have mentioned, Bitmessage wasn’t even publicly available until November 12th 2012. Furthermore, the only visible address is a v4 address (as it begins with 2c) and those didn’t even exist until about mid-2013.
According to Edman’s resume submitted to the court, he has a deep knowledge of digital forensics, applied cryptography, Shamir’s Secret Sharing Scheme, and cryptocurrencies. Edman’s testimony examines an email that was submitted to the court as “Exhibit A.” Edman declares under penalty of perjury that he believes Exhibit A was likely created from an email Wright sent to himself on or about April 16, 2014. The document was then “converted to a PDF and modified to appear to have been sent from ‘Dave Kleiman’ to Uyen Nguyen on or about December 20, 2012.” The expert’s testimony further states:
I also determined that Exhibit A contained a PGP signature allegedly created by Dave Kleiman on or about March 12, 2014 – almost a year after he died.
A Trend of Modifications
Edman states that he analyzed Exhibit A previously and further analysis and forensic artifacts contained within the PDF itself bolster his opinion. The digital forensics expert said that he also examined “Exhibit F” and concluded that the document was “created by further modifying Exhibit A to make it appear as if Exhibit F is actually a separate email sent from Dave Kleiman to Uyen Nguyen.” “In my opinion, it is simply another revision to the PDF created from an email the defendant sent to himself on or about April 16, 2014,” Edman emphasized in his testimony. The witness’s affidavit declares that both Exhibit A and Exhibit F appear to be emails sent from David to Uyen Nguyen back in 2012, but “manipulations of a PDF created from an email” indicate that Wright sent it to himself in the spring of 2014. Edman noted that he understands that Exhibit A was withdrawn from the court because Wright could not “verify the date of that email exchange,” but to his knowledge Exhibit F was not withdrawn.
Edman goes on to explain that the metadata tied to the first exhibit’s PDF shows that it was created on or about April 17, 2014. The creator used the Acrobat PDF Maker 11 for Microsoft Outlook and Edman highlights that the computer’s time zone was consistent with Sydney, Australia (UTC+10) and then modified again five minutes later. Further analysis of the internal contents and structure of the document identified specific portions of the PDF were edited and revised. He further determined that Exhibit F was also comprised of modifications to the date field and revisions to the body of the document as well. Speaking on Exhibit A’s analysis Kleiman’s expert witness explained:
I identified a “TouchUp_TextEdit” marked-content point in the PDF file associated with Exhibit A which indicated that the text associated with the “From:”, “To:”, and “Date:” fields at the top of Exhibit A were edited.
The crypto community has not been kind about the latest documents and Edman’s affidavit has been shared widely across social media mocking Wright. The attorney Stephen Palleywho often comments on cryptocurrency related lawsuits stated “you can’t really attack [Edman’s] credentials and the analysis looks sound.” “You have to show an alternative explanation — they should settle,” Palley added. The public will still hear from Wright’s expert witnesses which include Brett Roberson, Kevin Madura, and Nchain’s CTO Steve Shadders.
In addition to the court case drama last week, news.Bitcoin.com reported that Martti Malmi said on Twitter that he might take action against Wright for accusing him of starting the “Silk Road, Hydra and a number of other darker websites.” “Taking a closer look to the transcript, Craig Wright is accusing me and Theymos of soliciting drug trade, assassinations, terrorism and child porn — That is too much to be ignored,” Malmi told the public. Following the accusations against Malmi, the owner of Bitcointalk.org, Theymos, also refuted Wright’s court claims against him stemming from the June 28 transcript. “I was made a forum admin in 2011 after Satoshi left,” Theymos insisted.
“I never had any interaction with CSW — CSW’s whole shtick is to just lie constantly,” the forum moderator conceded. “He’s so brazen about it that some people think, ‘there must be some truth there,’ but really it’s 100% nonsense.”
What do you think about the Kleiman v. Wright lawsuit involving billions of dollars worth of bitcoin? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.
Image credits: Shutterstock, Courtlistener, Twitter, Florida Case Kleiman v. Wright (9:18-cv-80176), Vice, and Pixabay.
Though Bitcoin’s second layer is mostly appreciated for its speed and scalability, it also helps enable some interesting smart contract functions. In this regard, the intricate microtransaction features have inspired enthusiasts to work on Lightning applications (LApps) that disrupt everything from content monetization (with Y’alls and LNCast) to privacy-friendly text messaging (like LnSMS and Receive SMS).
Though these early applications mostly serve as proof-of-concept prototypes that lack the user friendliness of their centralized fiat-friendly counterparts, they are still great starting points. They help create new ways to circumvent the rules and conventions of the old world. Through them, privacy and sovereignty are magnified like never before, and it’s only a matter of time until the snowball effect brings them to mainstream attention.
During her panel at the Magical Crypto Conference, Lightning Labs CEO Elizabeth Stark praised the bourgeoning development of LApps by emphasizing the most fundamental quality that sets them apart from similar altcoin DApps: the quick growth of the user base, which speeds up adoption.
“Development has been astounding, I didn’t expect this to happen so quickly,” she said. “One of the things I’m super passionate about is people building on top of Lightning. I think in these other communities it’s all like ‘developers, developers, developers‘ while nobody’s using the Dapps. On Lightning it’s been incredible: people are using this, they’re engaging with it, they’re interacting with it.”
And since the pace of development on Lighting often exceeds the amount of information one can process at a time, it’s important to point out the gems that shine among Lightning applications. Furthermore, this type of scrutiny might lead to the discovery of a “killer app” that the entire Bitcoin space needs. Hopefully, at least one of the projects presented in this review will catch the attention of mainstream audiences in order to reverberate the thunder that comes with Lightning.
If we assume that former Atari video game programmer Hal Finney was the person behind the Satoshi Nakamoto pseudonym, then it’s likely that the Bitcoin creator also developed pixelated art similar to the content available on Satoshi’s Games.
In a nutshell, Satoshi’s Games is the Lightning-friendly equivalent of flash game websites such as Miniclip, Pogo and Newgrounds. It features a collection of simple yet addictive titles which mostly emulate the mechanics of games like Super Mario World, Minecraft, The Legend of Zelda, Bejeweled, Agar.io and Flappy Bird.
“Satoshi’s Games is special because it brings back memories to gamers,” Satoshi’s Games developer Carlos Roldan (@whiteyhat) told Bitcoin Magazine. “Retro arcade games aren’t as common or popular these days. And if you combine these nostalgic video game elements with the Bitcoin and Lightning environment, you get a match made in Heaven that the developers from the 1980s and 1990s could only dream of.”
The novelty of this LApp emerges once you’re asked for an admission fee of 1,000 satoshis. If you’re unwilling to pay and would rather try some freebies, you can immerse yourself in the story of the text-based adventure “The Legend of Satoshi” (a clear throwback to the old days of Atari, Amiga and Commodore 64), test your survival skills in “BCraft” (a 2D top-down version of Minecraft, with some interesting forging options), or explore an alien planet in “Low Mem Sky.” Unfortunately, these are the only Bitcoin-themed games available, as the other two (the frantic “Skulldude” and the Golden Axe-inspired “The Lair”) haven’t received any kind of narrative or visual adaptation to suggest a relation to Satoshi Nakamoto.
Having Fun Isn’t Hard When You Have a Thousand Satoshis Card
The real fun begins as soon as you pay the 1,000 sats and explore the benefits of being a true member. (Just take into account that this isn’t investment advice and it’s likely that you will regret spending your BTC fractions whenever hyperbitcoinization arrives. Nonetheless, what you do buy helps to support a small team of developers who have put a lot of time and work into this project.)
Interestingly, the required microtransaction can be made by using your Lightning wallet, the Joule browser extension or the Blockstack universal login. It’s remarkable to see LApps become interconnected by offering support for one another, and this kind of collaborative approach will only help the entire wave of technological innovation grow.
It only takes a few seconds to make the microtransaction (whose valuation at the time of writing is 11 cents), and once you become a true member, a retro-looking dashboard greets you. Here, you can set your nickname, purchase a different user avatar or become a premium supporter with voting rights and access to tournaments (more on that later).
The charm doesn’t come from the presentation or technical implementation, but from the novel perspective. In two of the games listed, being a good player will help you earn satoshis. And since they provide disparate features and mechanics, they are most likely the best reason to pay for membership (and I happen to have spent a lot of time playing them, so they will receive individual sections).
Super Bro: A Mario Clone Where 1 Coin = 1 Satoshi
Like many of you reading this, I grew up playing Super Nintendo games. In this regard, Super Bro is a great throwback which features some textures, backgrounds and animation techniques that will send you back to your days of playing Super Mario World.
Conceptually, the game is very simple: You complete all of the levels, save Satoshi and every coin you collected during your adventure will be sent to your wallet as 1 sat. I must have spent more than 20 hours playing the game while listening to music and, during that time, I earned about 20,000 satoshis.
Super Bro features a male protagonist who bears a striking resemblance to Casa CEO Jeremy Welch. It takes you through a randomized journey which generates levels of varying difficulty. Sometimes, your game will be as simple as a walk in the park. At other times, you will face an army of goombas that’s only divided by a multitude of deadly pitfalls.
This Super Mario World adaptation is fun and addictive — plus, you have a strong financial incentive to return to it every day. You’re basically stacking sats during your breaks, and it’s easy to earn back the 1,000 satoshis entrance fee. As a matter of fact, it’s easy to imagine that citizens of developing countries might find a source of revenue in Super Bro, just like some players still farm gold in World of Warcraft. The main difference is that BTC units are scarce and might become much more valuable in time.
However, the game isn’t all milk and satoshis. The controls are a lot worse than the ones you find in the 1991 Nintendo original, the jumping mechanics can sometimes be your greatest enemy and the variety of levels will get boring pretty fast. But while Super Mario World is a lot more entertaining than Super Bro, it isn’t built on a cutting-edge payment system which offers you financial rewards. There are always trade-offs.
As metaphorically presented on the Netflix hit show “House of Cards,” Agar.io is the online multiplayer adaptation of “Feeding Frenzy.” It borrows the “big fish eats the smaller fish and gets bigger” mechanic but transfers it to round particles that move around a large world map.
Conversely, Lightning Agar is a challenge where you must pay 1,000 satoshis from your wallet regardless of your membership status. If you happen to eat another player, then you will be rewarded with 750 satoshis — so if your purpose is to earn some valuable BTC fractions, you should amass at least two of the players on the map.
From a technical point of view, there’s nothing different between Agar.io and Lightning Agar. The only major two major differences are popularity (the free-to-play version is much more popular, with hundreds of players competing at all times) and the financial incentive (which is more an issue of adoption and growth). Once people learn about the neat features of this LApp, they will definitely become more willing to take the extra challenge that can reward their skill with some money.
I’ve spent about an hour in Lightning Agar at a time when only two other players were around. Soon enough, I eliminated one of them and ended up eating so many colored dots that I became an unstoppable whale. Given its multiplayer nature, the game is pretty dull when you have no competition. You can end up occupying 25 percent of the game map, but you will crave the challenge and thrills. To me, it was an interesting lesson about capitalism and the need for competition (at one point, I was purposely dividing to help other players eat smaller parts of me and get bigger).
The Premium Features
If Satoshi’s Games becomes somewhat of a daily habit and you want to take your relationship to the next level, then you may be interested in paying 500,000 sats extra for the premium account. It will turn you into a first-class citizen of the realm by granting you voting rights on future developments and allowing you to join tournaments where you can earn even more satoshis.
Also, you receive many more customization features which set your user profile apart from all the others. You provide a greater amount of support to the developers, and, in exchange, you are rewarded with bragging rights.
Furthermore, in Super Bro you will begin each game with three extra lives (which otherwise cost 500 satoshis each), a boost of 1,000 satoshis to your score and a double multiplier on the gold coins you collect. If you would usually earn 500 satoshis by the end of your journey of saving Satoshi, now your amount should increase to 2,000. In a way, the investment in your premium account only makes sense if you’re willing to put in a lot of time playing the LApps.
Satoshi’s Games isn’t meritorious because of the individual games that build the experience. The collection of LApps earns its place in the spotlight thanks to the complex platform it offers, the interesting financial incentives that players have, and the willingness to integrate other applications such as Joule and Blockstack.
There’s enough content to please every lover of retro video games and plenty of reasons to return every day and experience a throwback to the early 1990s. Also, the polls indicate that there’s a lot more content coming and the community actually gets to decide the priorities of developers.
The collection of LApps definitely isn’t perfect and has some rough parts that can be polished. However, when you’re in the middle of a game of Super Bro or Lightning Agar, you will find enough enjoyment to forget about some bugs that need to be fixed. There’s also an efficient error-reporting system which I’ve found to be quite responsive: I’ve also exchanged some messages with the developers in order to provide feedback. Needless to say, the time I spent testing the LApps has been beneficial for both sides: I’ve earned some sats, and the platform has gotten noticeably better.
Gaming is also a multi-billion dollar industry that can benefit from the integration of fast, secure and private payments. It would be nice to have at least one LApp among the big names, but, ultimately, the success of projects such as Satoshi’s Games depends directly on our involvement as a community. We vote with our time and satoshis, and the dynamics of the industry shift accordingly.
“We want to BUIDL a more scalable platform which allows us to supply the high demand we have from video game developers who want to add their work to Satoshi’s Games,” said Roldan. “Also, we just added our project to Product Hunt and could really use some community help with upvotes. Your feedback can radically impact our future in a very positive way.”If you have time to give these platforms a try, you should definitely do so. For the price of feeding chickens or changing the display of a live clock, you can have some fun for a longer time and eventually get a return on your investment.
While crypto fanatics have been buzzing with news about bitcoin price surges and Facebook’s introduction of its digital currency libra, the Bitcoin 2019 conference brought together some of the most significant people in the BTC community for a two-day event to discuss the current and future state of Bitcoin.
These two crypto scientists are particularly notable because they were directly cited by Satoshi Nakamoto in the Bitcoin white paper. At Bitcoin 2019, they came together for a discussion with Bitcoin YouTuber Naomi Brockwell about their contributions to the creation of Bitcoin and where they foresee the original cryptocurrency going in the years to come.
Stornetta’s Contributions to the Development of Blockchain
Stornetta co-authored three papers cited in Bitcoin’s white paper and was one of the first people working on creating a system that did not require people to trust a central authority. In the early days of Bitcoin, Stornetta realized there was a problem with recording transactions, so he suggested the creation of immutable records in order to track all bitcoin transactions.
“We’re going to not be able to know the difference between an old bit and a new bit, and all of the world’s records are going to be in bits, and that’s going to create a crisis of credibility,” as Stornetta described the problem during his conference panel.
According to Stornetta, he and Stuart Haber, who is also credited with the creation of blockchain technology, were struggling to solve the problem, so they decided to create a publication that would prove it is impossible to build an immutable record without a central authority. In writing it, Stornetta said they were able to figure out how they could build an immutable record with the use of a blockchain.
Back’s “Proof-of-Work” Concept
In 1997, Adam Back introduced Hashcash, a “proof-of-work” system that would help users of the internet detect and avoid spam email. Hashcash worked to ensure users were only accepting emails from others who provided proof that an effort was made to send the email.
The “proof-of-work” concept was carried over into the world of Bitcoin to enable competitive mining of blocks. By using a trial-and-error method to mine bitcoin, miners that are able to verify proof of their work and successfully mine a block are rewarded with bitcoin as payment.
“Satoshi made use of the hashcash idea to create the mining,” Stornetta said. “It’s easy to see in hindsight huge incentives were needed to kickstart (bitcoin).”
The Future of Bitcoin
For Stornetta, the future of Bitcoin is broad and diverse. Stornetta told the audience at the conference that he is a “fundamental believer” in crypto technologies and their ability to level the playing field.
“I am not a crypto anarchist, but I certainly am a crypto libertarian, and I think we are going to get the world that we want and that we deserve, we just need to find a path that leads from A to B,” Stornetta said.
Stornetta said he believes distributed ledger technologies will continue to advance and diversify in the future, and that he sees a potential for other currencies besides bitcoin to flourish.
“It doesn’t all just have to be about money, of course,” Stornetta said to the crowd. “I’m a big fan of the distributed ledger and how that can create quantization and tokenization of assets … I just think we’re gonna see such a broadening and diversification of this.”
“A New Paradigm”
Back also touched on the quick development of cryptocurrency technologies and the challenges of keeping up with the pace of new ideas and implementations of them, even for technical people. Back discussed how there are still areas of innovation that have yet to be realized. He further noted that blockchain and bearer electronic cash are new building blocks that have implications with smart contracts.
“Basically, it’s like picking up a new programming language with a new paradigm, and it takes a lot of people to natively understand it and reach the conclusion of what kind of conclusions you can build with it,” Back said.
Back mentioned the development of the Lightning Network and state chains to further his point about how advancements within crypto technology are being made at a rapid rate. He also discussed his reasoning for why multiple cryptocurrencies may not be a necessity in the long run.
“In terms of coins, I tend to view it as sort of like TCP/IP — that there’s one interoperable standard,” Back said. “Any kind of innovation can be adopted in layers or, ultimately, people can import Bitcoin’s UTXO set to another data structure if a new data structure is found.”
Disclaimer: Bitcoin 2019 was produced by BTC Inc, the parent company of Bitcoin Magazine.